How Many Square Feet Is 20x20
Stone's a little different. 5, which is the number of watts per square foot that the average residential space requires. 82 square feet. The Square Feet to Cubic Feet calculator can be used in many different situations. 111111111 square yards/1. So if a area is 20 foot wide by 20 foot long, 20 x 20 = 400 square feet. It figures how many pieces long, then how many wide. is one of the country's largest manufacturers and tent suppliers. 6: Vinyl siding comes in 100-sq ft units called "squares. , a 12' X 14' room would be (12 X 14 = 168 square feet). Example A: Step 1. For example, if a room has 1,000 square feet, you would require 20,000 BTUs to heat it. The square root of 169 is 13. Based on 1sq. So again you have to consider other factors like the age of your guests and how many people you really think will be dancing at one time. Handy tool for cubic material volume calculation. (In an R1-2 district, one front yard must be 20 feet; the other 15. Example: If you calculate the area in square inches of one of the 2-inch-square bathroom tiles in the example above, you'll find that each tile has an area of 4 sq in. 384 square feet - 45 square feet (21 + 12 + 12 = 45) = 339 square feet of wallspace that will be covered with. ) You can also use this tool to convert feet to inches, convert inches to feet and calculate square inches. With waste, expect to purchase 110. the concrete slab will be 8 inches deep. (In an R1-2 district, one front yard must be 20 feet; the other 15. 14 pavers are required per square foot for a patio that is 375 square feet. Before you or your contractor buy paint, find out exactly how much you'll need. You can calculate the linear footage of a room by measuring the length of each wall and adding the sums of the length measurements. In those countries personal heights are usually expressed in inches and feet. If the surface is complex in shape, it may be possible to section the surface into simple shapes and add their square footages together. How many Inches are in a Yard. In this case, there would be 2 feet x 10 feet of carpet waste because the room is less than 12 feet wide. Fyffe, Building Official for Burnet, Texas, and spokesman for the American Association of Code Enforcement. It would be hard to estimate the number of tiles that can be accommodated by a 1 square meter area, if no specific tile size to be used is provided. Derives the ventilation rate from the area of the space (in square feet) to be ventilated multiplied by the ventilation rate per square foot. (area of project in square feet) x 0. To find the volume of concrete, you still need to multiply the surface area by the height or depth of the concrete in order to get cubic feet of concrete. Our concrete calculator allows you to accurately work out the amount of concrete you'll need for your project. If you love a home, does it matter if the 2,000 square foot charmer turns out to be officially 1,600 sq ft in length? Since square footage is used to determine a home’s market value, it can matter a lot. Summary: Homes are measured in square feet of living area or heated space. Lots of unique and original designs. Divide by 100 to find the number in metres. Life is good. Table 3 shows that there are 470 cubic feet per ton of settled alfalfa c. How to calculate gallons of rainwater that can be collected from a roof Calculate for: A 30 foot long by 20 foot wide roof in a 1 inch rainfall but you can only collect from half of the roof Length of roof _____ feet X width of roof _____ feet X. A square meter, or square metre, is a unit of area. Simply add the measurements for your concrete order to the relevant shapes above (you only have to fill in the shape/s you want to use) You can build up a concrete calculation for complicated areas by adding additional shapes of each type. Wiki User 04/22/2014. 100 square feet. (20' x 8') = 160 square feet Average coverage is 120 square feet per ton (160 / 120) = 1. CONCRETE CALCULATOR - How Much Do I Need? You can use this concrete calculator to help you determine the number of bags of QUIKRETE® Concrete Mix, Mortar Mix, or Fast-Setting Concrete you will need for the following projects. Hi Ed, Roof shinges are measure by the square which equals 100 square feet and usually comes packaged as 3 or 4 bundles of asphalt shingles. 666 feet so 20 inches by 20 inches is 1. 7639 ft² So, if you want to calculate how many square feet are 26 square meters you can use this simple rule. Triangle Areas / Square Footage. Make your outdoor space feel like home with IKEA’s quality, affordable decking and flooring solutions for balconies, gardens, patios, back yards and more. (area of project in square feet) x 0. Example 2: 2000 ÷ 200 inches = 1000 square inches of 40" X 24" filter. Recessed Lighting Layout basics preview all you should know to get the best & suitable Recessed Lights plan with good tips and ideas Recessed Lighting Layout Guide Learn best practices for Recessed Lighting Layout, Recessed Lighting Placement, Recessed Lighting Spacing, Shallow Recessed Lighting and Low Profile Recessed Lighting, Led Kitchen. Multiply the length (L), in feet, by the height (H), in feet, by the width (W), in feet, and divide by 27. I have 1,126 square feet of concrete patio and walkway around my pool and backyard. Next, calculate the wattage your room needs. In an R3 district, one front yard must be at least 10 feet. A square meter, or square metre, is a unit of area. There are: 27 cubic feet in one cubic yard (3’ x 3’ x 3’) 46,656 cubic inches in one cubic yard (36” x 36” x 36”) For example, to find the amount of. How much do tilers charge? Tilers charge $4 to $14 per square foot for flooring and $25 to $32 per square foot for. 44 square yards in a room that is 20 feet x 20 feet (400 square feet). 15 m) are restricted to road transport in the United States. How much space do you have for a sleeping area? Goats like to sleep together in small groups, and so the actual sleeping area they need can be quite a bit smaller than their living area. For example, if you have a wall that you want to put up that is 16 feet long by 2 feet wide and 2 feet tall you have 64 cubic feet of space to fill (16x2x2=64 cubic feet). Match the following grid to the suggested capacity in square feet and then you can easily determine what size of tent will work best for you. Precise paint needs will vary according to many factors, including application method. 7 answers 7. 76 square feet. Area of a Square= Side length x Side length Answer = (Side length x Side length) square area. It is equal to 9 square feet or about 0. How much carpet is needed to cover 2 rooms?. 20' x 20' Complete Deck Kit – Railing, Decking, & Framing Included - Trex, Fiberon, or Gorilla Decking Available. The first step in choosing a room air conditioner is measuring your space to calculate square feet. For example a room that is 20 feet long by 20 feet wide would be 20 X 20 = 400 Square Feet. One ton of gravel covers 100 square feet at 2 inches thick, 80 square feet at 3 inches thick, 70 square feet at 4 inches thick or 60 square feet at 5 inches thick. 093 square meters. if i need to calculate how many linear yards of wallpaper i need, which it comes in 54" width, could you give me the formula to calculate please???. The first step in figuring out how much it will cost to replace your flooring is to determine the square footage of the room or rooms you are reflooring. More square footage equals more cost. 10 to calculate the total amount of square footage needed. The area of the driveway is 1,080 square feet (60-feet x 18-feet). Check with the manufacturer for the approximate weight per cubic foot of the stone you want if it is sold by weight rather than volume. Check out PART 1 of the project to learn how to frame the shelter. You just need to type the centimeters value in the box at left (input) and you will get the answer in inches in the box at right (output). Add a 15% cull/waste allowance and then divide by the board length to see the number of boards required. There are 44. Multiply the weight per cubic foot by the number of cubic feet you need to determine how many pounds to buy. Project Calculator for 20" x 20" Styrofoam Ceiling Tiles. Much like 18 x 20 2 car garages, 32 x 22 feet snugly fits 3 cars. feet in a sq. To convert square feet to square inches, multiply the square foot value by 144. If the surface is complex in shape, it may be possible to section the surface into simple shapes and add their square footages together. 2000 lbs per sq ft equates to 2. How to Figure Out How Many Posts You'll Need. (area of project in square feet) x 0. Square feet Square meters; 10: 0. Because one cubic yard of gravel is equal to 1. the accessibility of your install in terms of whether it is in the front yard, backyard, upstairs, downstairs or even through your house, to the type of turf you choose, drainage issues, excessive roots, how many square feet you have, whether you. ) werden so aus dem metrischen Mass der Länge METER abgeleitet. 33333333333333 yd. It’s available in many different colors, and it can be more comfortable to stand on than porcelain or ceramic tile. These homes are designed with you and your family in mind whether you are shopping for a vacation home, a home for empty nesters or you are making a conscious decision to live smaller. A 9600 cubic foot room with a ten-foot high ceiling is 960 square feet. The area equal to a square that is 1 centimeter on each side. Learn the total square feet of your house's lot in exactly the same way. Case 1 - Suitable Habitat: 3,241,800 Cells X 14,400 square meters = 46,681,920,000 Square Meters / 1,000,000 Square Meters = 46,681. = 16x24= 384 sq. How to convert 30 inches to feet To convert 30 in to feet you have to multiply 30 x 0. Installation is not a time-consuming process, but most homeowners are better off leaving it to flooring professionals. Calculate your dirt quantity. Type in your own numbers in the form to convert the units! ›› Quick conversion chart of sq. She says that a rectangle 3 meters by 4 meters equals 12 meters squared. Triangles are another fairly simple shape. 6 you would need 55 on each long side and 13 on each short side, for a total of 136 sections. The area of a square is the space contained within a set of lines. 35 cubic feet. 78 square feet. Home Building Costs per Square Foot. Nope, I think I skipped that day. Let's say your room requires 120 square feet. This is an essential step when going through the process of deciding how to choose an air purifier that’s right for your needs. 20 feet x 20 feet = 400 square feet 400 square feet x 0. Many Other Conversions. add a comment posted by Anonymous Lead weighs 710 lbs per cu ft. If I have other details such as approximate square size, that will be made known to you but please keep in mind that your printed results might not be exactly the same. Enter measurements in US or metric units. For example, A 30' × 96' greenhouse with two 36″, 1/2 hp fans will equal (10,308 × 2) 20,616 cfm's of air movement. Garage Plans - Full List. Once you have the wall measurements, calculate the square footage by multiplying the width times the. The square foot is a unit of area used in the imperial and U. Find the square footage by multiplying the width by the length. Sales per square foot is a calculation of the dollar amount of sales that you generate in one retail store per square foot. 76391041671 sq. That being said, there are some standard sizes and construction costs that contractors rely on when bidding on a garage project. 7,850 square feet ÷ 43,560 square feet = 0. If more than one room is being painted with the same color, add up the total square footage. The materials calculator offers 4 "Box" area fields and 2 "Circular" area fields for you to calculate multiple areas simultaneously (back yard, front yard, driveway, garden, etc. Our concrete calculator allows you to accurately work out the amount of concrete you'll need for your project. Stone products such as flagstone or fieldstone lend a natural look to garden landscape. To get an estimate of how much carpet you need, measure the length and width of your room in feet. A = 1,248 square feet However, this figure actually only represents the surface area of the concrete – note that the answer is in square feet. The guys I use and the carpet I use, above builder standard, averages about 2. My room is 12 foot by 13 foot how do i work out what square foot is for laminate flooring you that area in square feet are in sq. Your Input Area: 1000 square feet Thickness: 3 inches Result You need a total of 250 cubic feet of topsoil, or 9. • Rules of thumb around the construction industry are 200 pounds per square foot for a single-level home, 275 for two levels and 350 for three levels. You can both estimate the total square feet of drywall, also known as gypsum board, you’ll need and the number of sheets. A plot 10 x 10 feet (or 5 x 20 feet) would be 100 square feet (Fig. Mathematically, the area of the deck is 480 ft². How many cubic feet does 20 cubic meters equal? How many metres of 1 metre wide fabric do i need to make 10 foot by 20 foot curtains? 1. How to calculate square footage for rectangular, round and bordered areas. If the 30 ft is the width, and the 20 feet is the height side (meaning the 20 foot side rises to the top of your roof) then you could easily get 3 different rows of solar panels on that roof. Thus, a 10' x 12' room would measure 120 square feet (10 x 12 = 120). A 10,000 square foot pre-engineered steel building has become a popular size building for rec centers, grow operations, equestrian facilities and warehouses. 5 & “Numbers of Squares Needed” is 53. The average homeowner spends between $12 and $20 a square foot on hardwood floors, installed. Many resources recommend that you give your chickens at least 2 square feet per bird. Tile typically comes in boxes, and you have to buy the whole box. Does excavation need to be done? What is the level of compaction? How close is the job site to where the pavers are stored. Navigation. screen for a room 17`4" x13`6"? What size screen for room 18 x 10? Home theater in 20 x 20 room. If your room is 10 feet long by 10 feet wide, 10 × 10 = 100 square feet. Forty-foot equivalent unit. 01 if you just send us an e-mail telling us how many SQUARE FEET of product you are going to use. For a square or rectangular room, multiply the length by the width, for example: 9 ft. How Many Deck Boards Do I Need? Choosing boards to form your deck flooring is one part aesthetics and one part mechanics. 50 per square foot for the Laminate multiplied by 250 square feet, which equals $375. Multiples: 1 square yard (Sq Yd) = 9 ft²; One yard is three feet, so a square yard can be imagined as a square with sides of three feet, or a square block comprising nine individual squares with sides one foot in length. There are 9 square feet in a square yard. How many square feet is 20 x 20? Follow. The radio button is used to separate Cent to Square Feet Converter and Square Feet to Cent Converter each other. Taking a U out of a tile where it wraps around a wall at a door takes a bit of time. "To calculate the square footage of your home, use a tape measure to measure each room from wall to wall, rounding up to the next half-foot, multiplying length by width for each living space. Divide the amount of nitrogen recommended per 1,000 square feet by the amount of nitrogen in the fertilizer mixture. 5 for 3/8-inch PEX tubing, or by 1. 62 cubic yards). The carpet calculator will provide the total square feet and square yards required for the dimensions you provide. is one of the country's largest manufacturers and tent suppliers. Roofing square is the most common measurement unit used by roofers, as well as contractors from many other trades. 1 ton of 1-Man Rock fills about 15 cubic feet of space, so if you have 64 cubic feet of space, divide it by 15 to find out approximately how many tons you will need. 00 Tiny House Listings. Take the square root to both sides of the equation So Step 3. Tip If your lot has an odd shape, break it up into rectangles and squares. Measure the square footage of the floorspace. 4 feet X 5 feet = 20 sq. How many square feet in a 10 ft x 20 ft room? Answer. 5 by 144, that makes 216 square inches in a square foot and a half. Garage Plans - Sorted. ft? Karen, It depends on the shape of the 90 square foot region. 20feet wide by 20 feet long perfect square so just 20 squared which would be 400 square feet common rule L x W. 78 square feet. Tip If your lot has an odd shape, break it up into rectangles and squares. Do You Want an Average Garage Size? While all of the sizes above can be made by any garage builder, there’s another option you can take. Square or Rectangular Areas. How many square feet is 1 square meter? 1 square meter = 10. feet) is a common length unit used in Imperial system and the current US customary unit system. For example, if you need 500 total square feet, multiplying by 1. 7 for 5/16-inch PEX tubing to obtain the length of tubing required for the room loops. Best Answer: 500 sq feet is 72,000 sq. How do we express the area. Because one cubic yard of gravel is equal to 1. ) werden so aus dem metrischen Mass der Länge METER abgeleitet. For 9″ Tiles: Floor Area. Instantly Convert Square Feet (sq ft) to Boards (bd) and Many More Area Conversions Online. According to the table above, one cubic yard of concrete placed at a thickness of 5-inches covers 65 square feet. While this method is simple, it does not take into account the insulation, age, or climate of your home. 5300 square feet) $5,000 Block #2-7 (85’ x 38’) $5,000 Block #8-10, 13-15 (50’ x 40’) $2,300 Block #11-12 (50’ x 35’) $2,300 5 The Plaza Heavy Foot traffic is typical along this route because it is the main thoroughfare into the carnival/ midway. Hi Sandra - In order to calculate how many square feet your 14 boxes will cover, I will need to know how many square feet are in each box. I bid my last one at. The ledger is made from a single board of the same width. What is a Square Inch? A "square inch" is a unit of area measurement equal to a square measuring one inch on each side. m Conversion Chart for Square Feet to Square Metres. Learn more!. According to your calculator my “Actual Square Feet of House” is 4807. Another benefit of House Plans 1500-2000 square feet is that they are much cheaper to heat and cool, creating even more savings for budget-conscious homeowners. So 20 by 20 means you should multiply 20 with 20 that equals 400. That includes labor and 8lb pad. Learn the total square feet of your house's lot in exactly the same way. For an estimate, use the calculator above or follow these steps: Drywall needed = total area/sheet size. If there are more rooms such as closets simply do the same and add them to the total. Think of it in the sense of a dance floor. 623 gal/sq ft = 280 sq ft. According to the table above, one cubic yard of concrete placed at a thickness of 5-inches covers 65 square feet. Just break out your measuring tape—or a laser measure—to get its. so inorder to do a 20 x 20 room, you will have to buy 20'x 12 or 20'x 15 x 2. Be aware that the floor square footage assumes square corners; you may have to extrapolate in such cases. We also show how to actually calculate how much BTU cooling capacity you need based on building area or square feet, and we warn about dehumidification problems if you buy an air conditioner that is too big for the space you are cooling. At The Home Depot, you’ll find concrete pavers, wall stones, patio stones and edgers that mimic the textures and shapes of natural stone designed to be DIY-friendly and easy to install without the hefty price tag. The easy way to estimate is that 10 square feet is almost one square metre. It is 144 square inches, 1/9 th of a square yard, or approximately 0. Volume Calculator for Cubic Feet. Jacobsen Homes builds a wide variety of homes sizes, including 800 to 999 sq ft manufactured homes. For homes with average insulation and windows, in a kinda normally cold area (Mid-Atlantic), a rough rule of thumb seems to be 10 BTU for every square foot of living space. It may be redundant, but I want to make certain you have multiplied the width times the height of each wall to calculate square feet per wall. That amount is calculated as follows: 120 x 1. How many square feet are in a 10x10 room? To answer this question, we simply multiply the length of the room by the width. Square feet to square meters. These lines should be measured in feet (ft) for square footage calculations and if needed, converted to inches (in), yards (yd), centimetres (cm), millimetres (mm) and metres (m). Wiki User 12/02/2012. If you have concrete delivered it is sold by the yard (which is a cubic yard = 27 cubic feet). Simply add the measurements for your concrete order to the relevant shapes above (you only have to fill in the shape/s you want to use) You can build up a concrete calculation for complicated areas by adding additional shapes of each type. (20' x 8') = 160 square feet Average coverage is 120 square feet per ton (160 / 120) = 1. 333 tons needed Stacked Stone Walls. With this much space seating up to 40 guests a snap. How to Calculate Square Footage There are many reasons as to why you need to figure out the square footage. Follow along to learn how to calculate yourself, or simply use the calculator above. Use the formula below to calculate the number of cubic yards needed for your project Total Square Feet X Depth (use. Buyer Must Level Site w/Dozer We Recommend All Cabins/Houses Be Put. Alan's Factory Outlet wood 2 car garages are Amish built. What screen size should i buy for a 12x 15 room? What size led tv screen for 12 x12 room?. The number of yards at the top of the column is the amount of material you will need. List of the required lumens per sq foot based on the room type: Living Room - 15 Lumens. I would buy 20 area -51 rw-150s and cram as many 3 gallonpots that average 1-2 oz per plant dried in there. This brings a question to mind. Generally, a deck should be wider than it is deep, with the longer dimension running along the house. To convert square feet to square inches, multiply the square foot value by 144. Because you use a different paint on the doors and windows, subtract those areas from the room total. Works both in metric and imperial units. *Square Footage is also known as (a. This BTU Calculator will determine what hearth product size is required with only a few steps and information such as square footage (sq ft). The square foot is a unit of area used in the imperial and U. Remember that unless the roof is flat, the square footage of the building is different than the square footage of the roof. com Square footage calculator is an easy tool that enables you to calculate an area in square feet as well as perform conversion such as finding out how many square feet are in an acre. There is no indication what the sub surface is. 63 m) or 53 feet (16. How Many BTUs Are Needed for a Window Type A/C to Cool a. Once at the depth, match the square footage with the depth. 9999999% empty space (really, just a few atoms bound together by a "gluing" force we know little about, separated by empty space), if you manage to make a basketball dense enough, you could fit nearly an infinite number of them into any room. For example, a room that is 25 feet wide and 26 feet long will have a floor area of 25 * 26 = 650 square feet. A square that is 20 Feet on each side is 400 Square Feet. The area of the driveway is 1,080 square feet (60-feet x 18-feet). The area equal to a square that is 1 centimeter on each side. 667~ square feet 1. 5, which is the number of watts per square foot that the average residential space requires. This 400 square feet house plan includes 1 bedroom, 1 bath, and a nook/breakfast area. Enter measurements in US or metric units. 3000 square feet — take the square root, and see it can be made with a square 54. This is an easy calculation - just multiply the length in feet by the width in feet. Roofing contractors estimate projects and materials by the square, so it is crucial to find this measurement to accurately estimate the amount of material needed. The radio button is used to separate Cent to Square Feet Converter and Square Feet to Cent Converter each other. Algebra -> Customizable Word Problem Solvers -> Geometry-> SOLUTION: how many square foot is 20 ft by 30 ft rectangle? Log On Ad: Over 600 Algebra Word Problems at edhelper. (area of project in square feet) x 0. 18 = 5,555(5). A standard garage in an American home measures 20 x 20 ft2 = 400ft2. But if the lot were 100 x 435. 33 acres times 43560 is equal to 5. How many 12×12 tiles come in a box? You'll get 8 to 10, 12×12 inch tiles in one box. Works for both rectangular and square tiles. A typical double mattress takes up 27 square feet, which accounts for a third of your square footage, so you're probably looking at a lofted bed, or a futon or some kind of bed/couch hybrid. In this article, we are going to explain how to calculate square footage and understand the square footage formula. Type in your own numbers in the form to convert the units! ›› Quick conversion chart of sq. The south wall is also 24 feet long by 8 feet high, less 16 foot wide by 7 foot high for the garage door, equaling 80 square feet. The building code requires that the sidewalk be 5 feet wide and 8 inches deep. How many 20X20 inch tiles are in 1000 square feet? - Decorative Ceiling Tiles R 30 Styrofoam Ceiling Tile question. There are three common scales or rules used in the industry (Doyle, Scribner, and International), but the Doyle scale is the most commonly used around the St. How many cubic feet does 20 cubic meters equal? How many metres of 1 metre wide fabric do i need to make 10 foot by 20 foot curtains? 1. In your dining room, you’ll want about 30 lumens per square foot on your dining table (you want to see your food, but not examine it), so if your table is 6 x 3 feet, that’s 540 lumens. I would buy 20 area -51 rw-150s and cram as many 3 gallonpots that average 1-2 oz per plant dried in there. They’ve got a hay feeder, fresh water, a shelter for rain, and maybe some shade for hot days. 09290304 Square Meter You may also use this area units conversion calculator tool to convert between square meters, square feet and all area measurement units. Our gravel calculator will help you estimate how many cubic yards of pea gravel you need for your coverage area. Our calculator gives you the option of calculating the exact cost of materials. It is 144 square inches, 1/9 th of a square yard, or approximately 0. Three car garages are usually 32 feet wide by 22 feet deep. boxes in a room or two. This is enough to cover a large room or a couple of average-sized rooms adjoining each other. To find the squares, divide the overall roof area by 100 and then round up. 111111111 square yards/1. 75 = 450 square feet available for solar panels. How to calculate square footage for rectangular, round and bordered areas. In our example, let's say each box contains 10 square feet of tile. It is the size of a square that is one meter on a side. Just break out your measuring tape—or a laser measure—to get its. Buy detailed architectural drawings for the plan shown below. Circle: Area = 3. In a perfect universe, our 1,080 square foot driveway will need exactly 16. 50 or 60 lbs per sq ft is more likely and more in line with building materials. If you love a home, does it matter if the 2,000 square foot charmer turns out to be officially 1,600 sq ft in length? Since square footage is used to determine a home’s market value, it can matter a lot. Add all of your measurements for each room together to arrive at the total square footage and multiply that result by 1. This will differ floor to floor!. This BTU Calculator will determine what hearth product size is required with only a few steps and information such as square footage (sq ft). For example, to find out how many square feet in a square yard and a half, multiply 1. This calculator allows you to calculate how many tiles you need to cover a simple rectangular area. It figures how many pieces long, then how many wide. House Plan for 20 Feet by 40 Feet plot (Plot Size 89 Square Yards) Price is based on the built area of the final drawing. If it were a perfect square it would be 208. In a perfect universe, our 1,080 square foot driveway will need exactly 16. Find the number of posts by measuring the running linear feet and dividing by 8 feet plus 1 for the end, plus 1 more post for the steps, totaling 8. Multiply the length and height of one wall. There are 44. The building code requires that the sidewalk be 5 feet wide and 8 inches deep. Soil Calculator and Garden Planner Soil Calculator – Estimate How Much Soil You Need For Lawn & Garden Estimate the soil needed for a landscape bed by measuring the length, width, and depth (English or metric units) of the space you want to fill. 10 feet x 20 feet = 200 square feet. Enter dimensions in US units (inches or feet) or metric units (centimeters or meters) of your concrete structure to get the cubic yards value of the amount of concrete you will need to make this structure.